See Article History Austronesian languages, formerly Malayo-Polynesian languages, family of languages spoken in most of the Indonesian archipelago; all of the PhilippinesMadagascarand the island groups of the Central and South Pacific except for Australia and much of New Guinea ; much of Malaysia ; and scattered areas of VietnamCambodiaLaosand Taiwan. Only the Niger-Congo family of Africa approaches it in number of languages, although both the Indo-European and Sino-Tibetan language families have considerably more speakers.
The earliest civilizations which influenced the development of western culture were those of Mesopotamia ; the area of the Tigris—Euphrates river systemlargely corresponding to modern-day Iraqnortheastern Syriasoutheastern Turkey and southwestern Iran: What we think of as Western thought today originates primarily from Greco-Roman and Germanic influences, and includes the ideals of the Middle Agesthe Renaissanceand the Enlightenmentas well as Christian culture.
Alexander the Great In Homeric literature, and right up until the time of Alexander the Greatfor example in the accounts of the Persian Wars of Greeks against Persians by Herodotuswe see the paradigm of a contrast between the West and East.
Nevertheless, the Greeks felt they were the most civilized and saw themselves in the formulation of Aristotle as something between the wild barbarians of most of Europe and the soft, slavish Middle-Easterners.
Ancient Greek sciencephilosophydemocracyarchitectureliteratureand art provided a foundation embraced and built upon by the Roman Empire as it swept up Europe, including the Hellenic World in its conquests in the 1st century BCE. In the meantime, however, Greece, under Alexander, had become a capital of the East, and part of an empire.
The Celts also created some significant literature in the ancient world whenever they were given the opportunity an example being the poet Caecilius Statius. They also developed a large amount of scientific knowledge themselves, as seen in their Coligny Calendar.
It is a mid-sized Augustan provincial temple of the theocratic Imperial cult of the Empire. Traditional cult was a focus of Imperial revivalist legislation under Decius and Diocletian.
The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. For about five hundred years, the Roman Empire maintained the Greek East and consolidated a Latin West, but an East-West division remained, reflected in many cultural norms of the two areas, including language.
Although Rome, like Greece, was no longer democratic, the idea of democracy remained a part of the education of citizens. In the Roman world one could speak of three main directions: North Celtic tribal states and Parthiansthe East lux ex orienteand finally South, which implied danger, historically via the Punic Wars Quid novi ex Africa?
From the time of Alexander the Great the Hellenistic period Greek civilization came in contact with Jewish civilization. Christianity would eventually emerge from the syncretism of Hellenic cultureRoman cultureand Second Temple Judaismgradually spreading across the Roman Empire and eclipsing its antecedents and influences.
Roman culture also mixed with CelticGermanic and Slavic cultures, which slowly became integrated into Western culture: Medieval West[ edit ] Two main symbols of the medieval Western civilization on one picture: After the fall of Romemuch of Greco-Roman art, literature, science and even technology were all but lost in the western part of the old empire.
However, this would become the centre of a new West. Europe fell into political anarchy, with many warring kingdoms and principalities.
Under the Frankish kings, it eventually, and partially, reunified, and the anarchy evolved into feudalism. Much of the basis of the post-Roman cultural world had been set before the fall of the Empiremainly through the integration and reshaping of Roman ideas through Christian thought.
The Greek and Roman paganism had been completely replaced by Christianity around the 4th and 5th centuries, since it became the official State religion following the baptism of emperor Constantine I.
Orthodox Christian Christianity and the Nicene Creed served as a unifying force in Christian parts of Europe, and in some respects replaced or competed with the secular authorities.
The Jewish Christian tradition out of which it had emerged was all but extinguished, and antisemitism became increasingly entrenched or even integral to Christendom. The Church founded many cathedralsuniversitiesmonasteries and seminariessome of which continue to exist today.
Medieval Christianity created the first modern universities. Historian Paul Legutko of Stanford University said the Catholic Church is "at the center of the development of the values, ideas, science, laws, and institutions which constitute what we call Western civilization.
The philosophy and science of Classical Greece was largely forgotten in Europe after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, other than in isolated monastic enclaves notably in Ireland, which had become Christian but was never conquered by Rome.Bibliography of Translations from the Chinese Buddhist Canon into Western Languages.
Last updated: This is a working bibliography of translations of Chinese Buddhist texts mainly from the Taishō edition of the canon. Bibliography of Translations from the Chinese Buddhist Canon into Western Languages.
Last updated: This is a working bibliography of translations of Chinese Buddhist texts mainly from the Taishō edition of the canon. The Office of Public Affairs (OPA) is the single point of contact for all inquiries about the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
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Ethnologue is the ultimate source of information on the world's languages. Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, and European civilization, is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.